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[MNML 24] 印尼「學生樂園」的當代啟示
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[MNML 24] 印尼「學生樂園」的當代啟示
資料時間_ 2018/03/09
資料地點_ 在地實驗

§ 《數位荒原》駐站暨群島資料庫計劃 (第一年),第七場發表
§ NML Residency Project & Nusantara Archive: Exploring the Contemporaneity of Taman Siswa

1922年在印尼日惹成立的Taman Siswa(學生樂園),是一個有別於西方殖民教育的學校,以 「Among」(爪哇語「教育」)為方法,培養學生掌握身體和靈魂的自由、和諧和規律。學生樂園除了教授一般語言、科學、經濟等科目以外,也注重爪哇傳統音樂和藝術教學。學生樂園不以追求知識和啟蒙為終極目標,而同時強調感受、思考和體驗,並以發展民族主義、個性和文化為根基。學生樂園創辦人Ki Hadjar Dewantara出身王室,曾是激進的獨立運動領袖。他被流放到荷蘭後開始關注教育,並受到Montessori和泰戈爾的啟發,返國後建立學生樂園。在這個提倡像家人一樣共處的自發(而非強迫的)學習模式中,他結合東西方系統,自創出獨立於殖民系統的替代教育體制,使學生樂園聚集了多位傑出藝術家和民族主義者。同時,學生樂園也是印尼第一所給予女性同等教育權利的學校。然而,1950至60年代的學生樂園在「傳統教育」和「國家教育」之間辯論拉扯。具有強烈反殖和民族主義精神的替代教育系統「學生樂園」,要如何在後殖民社會的現代教育體制中,維持其獨特性?當代印尼日惹的替代文化和藝術空間眾多,或多或少都因不滿國家教育體制而另尋獨立自主的空間。Kunci文化研究中心在2016年建立「不當教育學校」(School of Improper Education,印尼語原名為Sekolah Salah Didik,直譯為「錯誤教育學校」),以共同學習「如何學習」這回事。學校的學習方法便以「學生樂園」為鑑,實驗後殖民替代教育的可能。

Founded in 1922 in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Taman Siswa was an alternative school to the Dutch colonial education system. Its teaching method is called “Among” (in Javanese means ‘education’), which aims at cultivating students to move according to their natural character, maintaining freedom, peace and order of their body and soul. As such, the school not only taught general subjects such as language, science and economics but also traditional Javanese music and art. Taman Siswa did not set the pursuit of knowledge and enlightenment as its ultimate goal; rather, it simultaneously stressed the importance of feeling, thinking and experiencing in the process of developing nationalism, personality and culture. The founder of Taman Siswa, Ki Hadjar Dewantara, came from a royal family. He used to be a radical nationalist leader before being sentenced to exile in the Netherlands by the Dutch colonial government in 1913. At there, he developed interests in education, and was particularly inspired by the kinds of system established by Montessori and Tagore. The establishment of Taman Siswa was the result after his return to the homeland. Taman Siswa’s philosophy is to see the school as a family, in where students learn spontaneously. Ki Hadjar integrated the system of East and West, created a unique alternative school which once gathered the most progressive nationalists and modern Indonesian artists. More importantly, Taman Siswa was among the first school that gave equal opportunity for women to go to school and become teachers. However, during the post-independence period, Taman Siswa had been engaging a tug of war between the debates of “traditional education” and “national education”. What position should the school take to preserve its uniqueness during the postcolonial period? Decades later, contemporary Yogyakarta is home to alternative art and cultural spaces. They more or less, like Taman Siswa, look for autonomous, independent space outside the authoritative education system. In 2016, Kunci Cultural Studies Center (est.1999) founded a “School of Improper Education” (it was named ‘Sekolah Salah Didik’ in the Indonesian language, which literally means ‘school of wrong education’). It invites participants to learn “how to learn” together. Kunci’s method is said to be inspired by Taman Siswa, and they seek to experiment the possibility of building a postcolonial alternative education in contemporary times.


§ 講者介紹
§ SPEAKERS

蘇穎欣,1988年生。新加坡南洋理工大學文學博士,亞際書院(新馬)助理,吉隆坡獨立空間「亞答屋84號圖書館」和青年知識團體「業餘者」共同創辦人。主要關注文學與文化理論、亞洲歷史、思想和文學,特別是新馬兩地的知識生產。2018年1月至2月在《數位荒原》駐站暨群島資料庫計劃下,駐站印尼日惹Kunci文化研究中心。

Show Ying Xin (b.1988) was a researcher-in-residence (Jan to Feb 2018) at Kunci Cultural Studies Center, supported by NML Residency & Nusantara Archive Project. She obtained a Ph.D. in literature from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, where she researches on contemporary Sinophone and Anglophone Malaysian literature. Her field of interests includes literary and cultural theory, Asian history, thoughts and literature, especially the knowledge production of Singapore and Malaysia. She is the co-founder of “Rumah Attap Library & Collective” and “Amateur” in Kuala Lumpur, now working as an independent researcher.

許芳慈,新加坡國立大學社會科學所亞洲文化研究博士候選人, 研究興趣為冷戰美學的現代性視覺考研,以及記憶政治之於動態影像的關聯性。

Hsu,, Fang-Tze, an independent researcher and a Ph.D. candidate of the Cultural Studies in Asia programme of the National University of Singapore. Her research interest lies in the juncture of contemporary knowledge formation, Cold War aesthetics, and memory politics.


§ 《數位荒原》駐站暨群島資料庫計劃(第一年)FB
§ 主辦單位:數位荒原(財團法人數位藝術基金會)
§ 協辦單位:在地實驗、打開-當代藝術工作站
§ 觀察團成員:陳湘汶、侯昱寬、賴英泰
(本計劃由「國家文化藝術基金會」贊助)

發佈時間_ 2018\06\26
版權資訊
原件著作財產權人: 蘇穎欣、許芳慈
數位檔案著作財產權人: 在地實驗、數位荒原
直接連結: http://archive.etat.com/?p=6908
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